Thursday, July 30, 2009

2nd set of notes - principles, objectives

Four generations of extension in Asia
Extension services in modern Asia varies from country to country. General sequence of four periods can be summarized into”
• Colonial agriculture: Experimental stations established by colonizers with focus on certain export crops Technical advice was directed at landowners. Assistance to small, subsistent farmers was rare
• Diverse top-down extension: Also known as commodity-based extension services. Various schemes were initiated for the small farmers. Generated support from foreign donors.
• Unified top-down extension: World Bank introduced Training and Visit system (T&V) in the 70s and 80s. During the US era, national extension services were merged. Messages were regularly delivered to farmers. This is also the green revolution period
• Diverse bottom-up extension: With the end of WB, the T&V system collapsed. Participatory methods gradually replaced top-down approaches as a result of a more decentralized planning and a growing concern for sustainability and equity.
The support to extension has generally reduced. In fact, some have abandoned extension as a distinct concept, and prefer to think in terms of "knowledge systems" in which farmers are seen as experts rather than adopters. Therefore, agricultural extension, to be continuously relevant, needs to be reinvented as a professional practice.


The term extension was first used in the United States of America in the first decade of this century to connote the extension of knowledge from the Land Grant Colleges to the farmers through the process of informal education. In India, the terms community development & extension education became more popular with the launching of Community Development Projects in 1952 & with the establishment of the National Extension Service in 1953. Since then, Community development has been regarded as a program for an all-round development of the rural people, & extension education as the means to achieve this objective.
Extension education is an applied behavioral science, the knowledge of which is applied to bring about desirable changes in the behavioral complex of human beings usually through various strategies & programs of change & by applying the latest scientific & technological innovations.
Extension education has now developed as a full-fledged discipline, having its own philosophy, objectives, principles, methods & techniques which must be understood by every extension worker & others connected with the rural development. It might be mentioned here that extension education, its principles, methods & techniques are applicable not only to agriculture but also to veterinary & animal husbandry, dairying, home science, health, family planning, etc. Based upon its application & use, various nomenclatures have been given to it, such as agricultural extension, veterinary & animal husbandry extension, dairy extension, home science extension, public health extension, & family planning extension.
When extension education is put into action for educating the rural people, it does not remain formal education. In that sense, there are several differences between the two such as:
Formal education Extension education
1. The teacher starts with theory & works up to
2. Students study subjects.
3. Students must adapt themselves to the fixed
curriculum offered.
4. Authority rests with the teacher.
5. Class attendance is compulsory.
6. Teacher instructs the students.
7. Teaching is only through instructors.
8. Teaching is mainly vertical.
9. The teacher has more or less homogeneous
10. It is rigid.
11. It has all pre-planned & pre-decided program

12. It is more theoretical.

1. The teacher (extension worker) starts with practicals & may
take up theory later on.
2. Farmers study problems.
3. It has no fixed curriculum or course of study & the farmers
help to formulate the curriculum.
4. Authority rests with the farmers.
5. Participation is voluntary.
6. Teacher teaches & also learns from the farmers.
7. Teaching is also through local leaders.
8. Teaching is mainly horizontal.
9. The teacher has a large & heterogeneous audience.

10. It is flexible.
11. It has freedom to develop programs locally & they are
based on the needs & expressed desires of the people.
12. It is more practical & intended for immediate application in
the solution of problems.

Objectives of Extension Education
The objectives of extension education are the expressions of the ends towards which our efforts are directed. The fundamental objective of extension education is the development of the people, to help the farmer become more productive through a) learning of functional technology to improve the productivity of the system, b) learning to effectively and efficiently utilize technology, and c) learning of social structures and processes to sustain and stimulate rural transformation (Sison, 1975).
Agricultural extension is also concerned with the following objectives:
1) the dissemination of useful & practical information relating to agriculture
(2) the practical application of useful knowledge to farm & home;and
(3) to improve all aspects of the life of the rural people within the framework of the national, economic & social policies involving the population as a whole.

Principles of extension education
[Principle is defined as a basic assumption; standard of moral or ethical decision-making (Encarta Encyclopedia, 2004)]
1. Principle of interest & need. Extension work must be based on the needs & interests of the people.
2. Principle of cultural difference. Extension work is based on the cultural background of the people with whom the
work is done. Improvement can only begin from the level of the people where they are.
3. Principle of participation. Extension helps people to help themselves. Good extension work is directed towards
assisting rural families to work out their own problems rather than giving them ready-made solutions
4. Principle of adaptability. People differ from each other. An extension programme should be flexible
5. The grass roots principle of organisation. The programme should fit in with the local conditions.
6. The leadership principle. Extension work is based on the full utilisation of local leadership. People have more faith in local leaders & they should be used to put across a new idea so that it is accepted with the least resistance.
7. The whole-family principle. Extension work will have a better chance of sucess if the extension workers have a whole-family approach instead of piecemeal approach or seperate & unintegrated approach.
8. Principle of co-operation. Extension is a co-operative venture. It is a joint democratic enterprise in which rural people co-operate with their village, block & state officials to pursue a common cause.
9. Principle of satisfaction. The end-product of the effort of extension teaching is the satisfaction that comes to the farmer, his wife or youngsters as the result of solving a problem, meeting a need, acquiring a new skill or some other changes in behaviour. Satisfaction is the key to sucess in extension work. "A satisfied customer is the best advertisement."
10. The evaluation principle. Extension is based upon the methods of science, & it needs constant evaluation. The effectiveness of the work is measured in terms of the changes brought about in the knowledge, skill, attitude & adoption behaviour of the people but not merely in terms of achievement of physical targets.

Tuesday, July 7, 2009

Notes on Lecture and Visual Aids

A thorough and precise planning of a lesson requires that the teacher answers all key questions during the preparation. For doing it in an orderly manner, the use of lesson matrix is recommended.
Some Notes about the Matrix
1. Objective. As much as possible, think about a behavioral objective. In other words, what would you like your audience to be able to do after the lesson. Examples: They will be able to milk a cow, to plant a tree, to explain the anatomy of an animal, to implement a feeding scheme for pigs.

2. Parts of a Lesson. Each lesson should have the following parts:
Introduction. During the introduction of the lesson, it is useful to give a short summary of the previous lesson. This could be done by the teacher, but he could also ask a student to tell something about the previous lesson. Then a teacher gives a short summary of the lesson he is going to give. Students like to hear what new topic is to be treated during the lesson. Finally, the teacher tries to arouse his/her students’ interest in the new lesson. He may ask e.g., whether they already know something of the new topic. Anyway, he has to base the lesson as much as possible on their experience. It is important that students feel that the teacher, too, considers the new topic definitely worthwhile. Thus, the following is important during the introduction:
• repetition of the previous lesson
• summary of the new lesson
• arousing the interest in the new lesson
Central Part. This is the most important part of the lesson. The teacher is going to treat new subject matter. He explains the difficulties. He also tells the students which are the main and which are the subsidiary points. This is the most difficult part of the lesson.
The following pointers could be important for this part:
• Do not treat too much subject matter.
• Do not treat any subject that is too difficult for the students.
• Ask questions.
• Commend students who give a good answer.
• Repeat difficult parts of the subject matter.
• Give the students time to take notes.
• Tell a joke now and then.
• Speak calmly and clearly.
• Use not only your voice, the use of hands and facial expression is important, too.
• Do not stay put like a statue in front of the class; walk about the room as well, but do not exaggerate.
Conclusion/ Evaluation. Some teachers do not phase their lessons. They start explaining immediately and continue to do so for 60 minutes. This is too much, as students cannot listen intensely for 60 minutes. Thus the teacher had better stop explaining 5 or 10 minutes before the end of the lesson. He could use those last minutes for:
• Asking control question on the contents of the lesson
• Giving a summary of the lesson
• Giving the students homework to do. In other circumstances, it may be useful to have the students execute a task at the end of the lesson. Students like doing things themselves. The learning effect of tasks executed by students is generally satisfactory. Possible tasks include: solving a problem, making a test, group discussions with a number of students. Tasks may last longer than 10 minutes, but it is not important. In such a case, the teacher has to use less time for explaining.

3. Time. Introduction and conclusion/evaluation should not take too much time from the lesson (around 5 – 10 minutes).

4. Main Points of Topic. It will help you a lot when you write here all the key words about the content of your lesson.

5. Technique. Write how you are going to conduct the lesson (explanation, questions, discussions, tasks, tests, etc.).

6. Materials. Prepare here the checklist of everything you will need. You cannot look for it once the lesson started.
7. Subject. A course curriculum is divided into different subjects, many times given by different teachers.

8. Number of Students. Remember that for a good teacher-student interaction, the number of audience should be limited to 10 – 20 students. In practical training where the teacher has to supervise the work of students, a maximum of 5 – 7 is recommended.
9. Topic. The part of the subject matter to be taught.

10. Kind of Audience. Specify as much as possible the kind of audience to know the approach to be used.
Particularly, the enthusiastic teacher often forgets to ask questions during his lesson. This is a pity, as questioning is important on account of the following functions:
• Stimulating the students to think
• Making a lesson vivid
• Activating the students
The lesson has been divided into three (3) phases. Each phase has its own kind of questions:
• Questions during the introduction to arouse the students’ interest
• Questions during the explanation of the topic to stimulate the students to think
• Questions at the end of the lesson to check whether the students have understood it
The following are important:
• Put the question, wait for 3 to 5 seconds and then have a student answer.
• If the answer is wrong, do not reprimand him.
• Do not forget also to give a turn to those students who do not raise their hands.
• Try to formulate the question in a way to make the students think at a higher level.
• Formulate your own.

Table 2. Assumptions about Child and Adult learners
SELF-CONCEPT Dependent Increasingly self-directing
EXPERIENCE An external event

Limited An integral part of self

Extensive and varied
-age level
-curriculum Develops from:
-life tasks and problems
ORIENTATION TO LEARNING Subject-centered Problem-centered
-self-esteem External-like

General Characteristics of Adult Learners
1. The student participants are adults by definition. This implies that there is movement, progress towards the fulfillment of individual’s potential, there is development of balanced judgments about themselves and others, and there is increasing independence. The most visible way of showing adulthood is by coming to class voluntarily. Thus, it is very important to provide a situation wherein there is greater participation in the learning process.
2. They are all engaged in a continuing process of growth. Growth and changes are occurring in all aspects of the participant’s life- physically, intellectually, emotionally, in their relationships and in the patterns of cultural interests. The pace and direction of these changes vary from person to person. The people we are trying to help to learn are not passive individuals; they are actively engaged in a dynamic process.
3. They bring with them package of experience and values. Each participant brings a range of experience and knowledge more or less relevant to the tasks on hand. New students are not new people, they possess a set of values, established prejudices and attitudes in which they have a great deal of emotional investment. These are based on their past experiences. For adults, experience serves to determine who they are, to create their sense of self-identity. When the experience is ignored by the teacher, this implies a rejection of the person, not just the experience.

Thus, it is important to consider the students’ prior experience, knowledge and values in our approach to teaching.

First, these things determine what messages are received by the learner. Constant feedback is essential if the teacher is to remain aware of what the student is learning.

Secondly, if the student participants do not believe that they have any relevant experience or knowledge about the subject, it is possible to help them become aware that they do in fact possess relevant experience or knowledge. An example of this, is to write in the blackboard what they know regarding their subject, whether words or phrases. This shows that they are able to contribute towards the program of learning.

Thirdly, it is important to note that not all this set of values, experience and knowledge is correct or helpful to the required learning.

Lastly, these experiences and knowledge (some of it unique to the individual and new to the teacher) are major resources of learning and can be harnessed for the enrichment of the whole group. The utilization of the varied experience and knowledge of all participants is necessary not only to ensure effective learning at a personal level but also in binding the group together.
4. They come to education with set intentions. It is not always true that the participants are motivated by needs when they come to education. Some job-related programs, for instance, have participants who have little or no sense of need. Perhaps, it is more useful to talk of all adult student participants as having a set of “intentions”, which for many of them can imply the meeting of a felt need. Sometimes, the reason for attending trainings/seminars is not related to learning at all but more towards social contact or getting out of the house or to please other persons. Others come to learn because of their interest of adding to the richness of their present way of life. Some participants like the atmosphere of the adult class wherein they will get something out of the group apart from the subject matter. It meets a range of needs that are mainly personal and/or social. The “learning oriented” group desires the knowledge or skills for their own sake.
5. Adults bring expectations about the learning process. Adult students come to their training program with a range of expectations about the learning process, a series of attitudes towards education, in general. A number of student participants assume that adult education will be like school. They expect to be taught everything by a teacher who knows everything. On the other hand, some are more confident, and willing to engage in learning independently.
6. They all have competing interests. Adult participants are part-time students. Education for them is a matter of secondary interests, it is not their main concern. It is constantly overshadowed by their “realities” of life: their job or lack of job, their family situation, their social life and other issues which compete with the learning process.
7. Adults possess a set patterns of learning. Each of us learns in our own way, according to our particular ability and experience. Some handle figures more easily than others. Some have their own methods of memorizing facts. Some need to see the written page in order to comprehend more fully rather than rely on spoken words.

The pace of learning of each participant also varies. In general, in those areas where the participants have a good deal of experience on the subject matter, they tend to learn fast than the young people, provide that the new material does not conflict with existing knowledge.
“A picture is worth a thousand words” according to the traditional Chinese saying, and certainly in oral presentations, this seems to be true. Estimates vary, but up to 80% of what we take in, reaches us via our eyes. Hearing accounts for about 15% and the other senses, the remaining 5%. In presenting information to groups of people, it is therefore worth our time to make use of visual aids in one form or another. Although an audience will only remember 20% of what is said, and 30% of what is presented in visual form, simultaneous presentation in speech and visual aids can improve retention dramatically (up to 50% of what one sees and hears at the same time).
Most of us have attended meetings and presentations which failed because the wrong (or no) visual aid was used, or the presentation was insufficient, or the aid was used incorrectly. Practice is the best way of improving one’s presentation technique.
1. Effect you wish to achieve. Presentations which hold an audience’s attention contain an element of “drama”: the audience must have a general idea of the direction in which the speaker is heading, but they must not know everything which is to come. Surprise is an important “attention-getter”. Some visual aids are more dramatic to use than others. It is difficult to make dramatic use boards on which one has to write. The audience always has to wait while a point is made on the board. Visual aids which use the “reveal” techniques, especially in the overhead projector, allow the speaker to use drama more easily.

Holding a group’s attention normally requires the speaker to maintain constant EYE CONTACT with the audience. A common error among inexperienced speakers is that they spend much of their time looking at the board and talking with their back to their audience.

Finally, visual aids which make use of color are often more effective than those which allow black on white (or white on black). Moving illustrations also hold attention more easily than static pictures. Therefore, the use of slides or films can be very effective (although there are practical disadvantages such as cost, availability of equipment and time, to take account of).

2. Size of the group. The size of the group places practical limits on the type of visual aid to use and on the way it can be used. In very small groups (three or four people), it is difficult to use most visual aids. Even writing boards (chalkboards or white boards) or flip charts may feel rather “overdone”. One solution with such small group is to use presentation books (thick paper or thin card) in order to present information to the entire group simultaneously.

In very large groups (more than 100 persons), the speaker must be careful to select an aid which is readable at the sides and back of the hall. Fortunately, such large gatherings normally held in meeting halls which have been designed for that purpose, and the equipment which is available has been purchased with the size of the groups in mind. However, the speaker must always remember that his visual aids must be LARGE ENOUGH TO READ. Writing boards can be used if the lettering is kept as large as possible, but flip charts do not allow enough room for writing.

A common group size for technical presentations is anywhere between 10 and 30 persons. In such groups, almost all visual aids can be used provided ONE”S TEXT IS LARGE ENOUGH.

3. Available time and effort for preparation. Some visual aids may require more time and expertise for preparation. Slide presentations, for instance, are rarely very successful if one simply gathers slides from different sources and presents them to an audience with an impromptu commentary. A professional photographer will often take a hundred pictures in order to actually use a handful. Photographing text, especially from reports or books is also difficult. A considerable amount of time and effort has to be given to make an effective slide presentation, and in most technical presentations, this is simply not worthwhile.

The key here is to spend time and effort for the preparation of any visual aid. Preparation of such materials has to be done ahead of time. This extra time will be repaid by the increased interest of your audience and the effect it will have on your audience.

4. Available equipment. What you don’t have, you can’t use. At any presentation, arrive early so that you can check the availability of the equipment you are going to use and the venue. Always ask what you are the equipment available so that you can prepare materials which you can use in such a venue. And if you will bring your own equipment, make sure that simple oversights like plugs which do not fit wall sockets will be avoided.
GOOD SPEAKERS ARE NOT BORN, GOOD SPEAKERS ARE MADE. And any good speaker is always mindful of Murphy’s Law: “Anything that can go wrong, will go wrong”. Being prepared is more than half the battle towards coping when the unexpected happens in the middle of your talk. PRACTICE BEFORE ALL ELSE, PRACTICE!
CHALKBOARD -widely available
-easy to make
-familiar to audience and speaker -speaker loses eye contact when writing
-pre-preparation is difficult
-dramatic effect is difficult
-dusty, messy
-colors are not true
WHITE BOARD -use of colors is possible
-no dust or mess
-light surface is usable for projection
(through not really very suitable)
-if magnetized, usable as magnetic board -expensive, not always easily available
-special (water-based) marker is needed
-cannot be made by oneself
-some boards scratch easily
(usually in combination with above) -prepared materials are usable along side handwritten text and illustrations
-3-D props can be used
-also usable as pin board using small magnets -heavy, not portable
-props must be magnetic (or backed with magnet)
FLANNEL BOARD -pre-preparation of props is possible
-props are easily adjusted (during discussion or to show logical relationships)
FLIP CHART -usable as writing board for notes and points (in discussion)
-sheets can also be prepared ahead of time for better effect
-fairly portable, with telescopic stand; prepared sheets roll up -as with all boards, eye contact is lost while writing
-very limited space on a sheet especially with large groups (big letters have to be written!)
-reuse of material requires quite bulky storage (store flat to avoid ends from curling up)
-paper suffers with storage and use, no matter how careful you are
-limited dramatic effects
OVERHEAD PROJECTOR -speaker can always face audience
-can be used whether standing or sitting
-material can be prepared ahead of time or written during the talk
-use of color is possible
-“reveal” techniques are possible and can be quite dramatic use
-unlike other projection techniques, the room need not be blacked out
-clean, quick -equipment is expensive and heavy (transport is not convenient)
-typed originals must normally be blown up to produce large projected image
-low-contrast overhead sheets can be difficult to read in highly-lit rooms
-positioning of equipment can be difficult in crowded rooms
PROJECTOR -uses existing originals
-gives group access to color not generated by the speaker -large, heavy and bulky equipment
-require blacked-out room
SLIDE -color illustrations, especially photographs, are easily displayed
-very professional effects possible
-only good way to show photographs -requires considerable expertise and has production and capital high costs
-room must be blacked-out
-little speaker-audience contact

To use sheets, you have to take care of the following points:
• Use the same letter type on all sheets.
• Do not put too many words on the sheets.
• Have a lot of space on the sheet.
• If available, the computer can better do the written parts.
• Point the important points in the middle.
• If several sheets are needed on one topic, give page numbers.
• The text heading should be bigger or bolder to give a good view of the sheet.
• Don’t draw or write on the sheet that is used regularly.
• For the students to see the sheets better, make the place dark as much as possible.
• See to it that the audience will have a good view of the slides projected on the screen.
• The slides must not have too much darkness or too much light.
• Try the slides before using them so that if something is wrong, you can repair them beforehand.
• The best way to show the slides is to project them on a white wall.
• Tell something about the slides being shown. You can use a pointer to emphasize something on the slide.
Black and White Board
Take note of the following points when using the black and white board:
• Write clearly so that everyone can read it.
• Draw things as nicely as possible for everyone to know and see what you have drawn.
• Use the right colors in writing and drawing since some colors are difficult to see on the board.
• Place the board where there is not much light. When then light is shining on the board, you cannot see anything on it. So check with your audience if they can see what you have written on the board.
• It is best to use the board in three pieces of divisions:

1. For the homework and other announcements
2. For the notes you make
3. For the main subject of your lesson

Figure 10. Three Divisions of the Board
Movie/ Video
• Place the television where everyone can see it.
• Choose a video or movie that has to do something with the lesson otherwise you did it for relaxing class.
• It can be an introduction to your lesson or it can be a summary.
• The movie should be of good quality technically and production wise, otherwise, it would be very tiring to the audience.
• It is also good to have some theoretical parts in the video as a form of explanation to the students.
• Sometimes, educational tapes are available from commercial companies like drug companies. It is better to ask tapes from them because they are given free (sometimes) or at minimal cost.

Words, numerals and other data from an integral part of almost any type of visual, projected or non-projected. However, if a poster, an exhibit, or even a transparency fail to have legible lettering, the visual defeats its purpose.
The legibility of words that an audience is expected to read is frequently neglected during the planning and preparation of the visual.
Planners should give proper attention to legibility – hence to methods of lettering, sizes of letters, and styles of lettering. These matters physically control the amount of information that can be presented in one visual unit. In the same manner, the amount of information that can be absorbed in one visual instantly affects the choice of lettering.
Lettering plays an important part in the appearance and effectiveness of a visual or any graphic material. The lettering of title, captions, and labels to comply with recognized legibility standards is part of artwork and layout planning. Legible involves three major factors: size, spacing and style.

Your audience will not take any extra effort to read your message, so be sure you consider legibility distance to the last row in your audience before using the following letter size guide.


(lower case – letter m)
8 feet
16 feet
32 feet
64 feet ¼ inch
½ inch
1 inch

These sizes refer to the height of the letters. When you use both upper and lower cases, determine the size by the height of the lower case.
Demonstration posters normally should have lettering at least 1.5 inches in height since some people in most audiences will be at least 48 feet away.
Exhibit titles should be about 5 inches in size with sub-titles, 3 or 4 inches, and text ranging on, down to a minimum of 1 inch unless the viewer can come close to the exhibit.
For slides, filmstrips, transparencies and motion pictures, minimum letter size is also based on the maximum anticipated viewing distance. This maximum, as a standard, is accepted as being six times the horizontal dimensions of the picture on the screen. Thus, for a screen 6 feet wide, filled with a picture, the maximum viewing distance is 36 feet. The maximum viewing distance for television, in terms of screen size, is greater, 12 times wide. Therefore, minimum letter size for television is greater. You can make a rough test for the legibility of lettered materials for protection by first measuring the width of the art work in inches, then dividing this number by 2 placing the material that many feet away from a test reader. If he reads the letter easily, then for normal conditions, the materials projected, will be legible. But do not trust yourself as the test reader, ad your memory will help you vision.

Spacing of letters seems to be the most difficult task for the average layman. There are two common systems for spacing letters – linear and optical. In the linear system, the base line has equal distances. Each letter is placed in the center of its space.
In the optical system, the spaces between the letters are made to look equal, regardless of measurement.

Whether linear or optical, allow 1.5 letter width for the space between sentences. Too much or too little space again makes reading difficult. Separate lines within a caption so that adequate white space is left for ease of reading – about 1.5 times the height of the lower case letter m, measure from m on one line to an m, or comparable letter on the next line.
Use capital letters for short titles and labels, but for longer captions and phrases, (six words or more), use lower case letters with initial capitals since the lower case letters are read more easily.

Boldness or thickness of the lines determines ease of reading lettering. Lettering should not be too tall and thin nor too short and bulky. A good rule for thickness is about ¼ to 1/5 the letter height.
Use a simple letter without serifs. It complicates production as well as legibility.
Lower case letters are easier to read than capitals or upper case. Capitals can be used for titles or headings, though.
And lastly, do not mix styles of lettering in the same message. The only exception to use a different style for emphasis can be done in the following way:
• Color. Color is nature’s device against monotony. To a large extent, the richness and depth of our sense experience seems to depend on color. Colors have different effects on people. Some colors make people feel happy, others make people depressed. The connotations of color also depend on who is using them.

They depend on the society in which they are applied, as Asian connotations of color differ from that of Western values. But whatever the value is, there are a few basic principles that must be considered when used for audio-visual purposes. These are:

1. Choose colors that harmonize. Systems to consider include:

a. self-tone. Using variations of one hue such as light, medium and dark green.
b. complementary. Selecting colors opposite each other on the color wheel.
c. trial. Using colors equidistant on the color wheel such as red, yellow, and blue.
d. analogous. Using adjacent colors such as yellow, yellow-green.

2. Limit your visual to two or three colors, so color does not become too obvious to the viewer. Have one dominant color and follow the rule: “the smaller the area, the brighter the color”.

3. Remember the cool colors – green, blue, gray – recede and are best for emphasizing the message. Keep backgrounds neutral – displayed objects will appear if the background color is too vivid.

4. Consider lighting when selecting colors since they do not look the same in daylight and under artificial light. If colored lights are to be used, a white background will probably be most effective.

5. Warm colors are most visible, so use them for emphasis. Use them for numbering steps, key words, and short headings. Light colors make objects appear larger, a small booth will appear larger in light colors. Dark colors make objects appear smaller. Dark letter will appear narrower on a light background though they are most legible. When heavy, dark colors are used at the top of a visual, they will make it appear too heavy. Flat or dull gloss paints are best for exhibits or posters to minimize glare.

Because color has these values, it can heighten reality, permit sharper comparisons and contrasts, and it is psychologically satisfying. One will find color a definite advantage when used in any audiovisual material.
1. Start your presentation with eye contact and keep eye contact during your presentation.

2. Visual aids: try them out before you start!

- Is it legible?
- Are they organized? (logical order and positioning)

3. KISS! Keep it short and simple. This counts for the content of your presentation and for your visual aids.

4. Use only key words, no sentences, on transparencies and flip charts.

5. Start your presentation with a positive remark.

- “I am grateful I have the opportunity to tell about…..”
- “After 15 minutes, you might as interested in handicraft as I am”.

6. No “suicide openings”:

- “I don’t know much about the subject”.
- “I am replacing a colleague and did not have time to prepare”.
- “I will never have enough time to explain….”

7. Make use of functional colors in your flip charts and transparencies.

8. Explain all abbreviations, your public always wonder what they mean.

9. Learn the first couple of sentences (2-4) by head. So you can have eye contact.

10. Always keep contact with your audience, it will:

- give your self-confidence.
- build up your presentation.
- get your message across.
So do not look and talk to your flip chart or overhead screen.
11. Draw an imaginary line in front of your feet and remember you have to turn back to that line.

12. Use a pen or pencil at your transparency or at the overhead projector, and lay it down!

13. Use colors, numbers, etc. to point at specific subjects. “I start at number one”. “the red area indicates Nepal”.

14. Use graphs to give summarized information, especially for figures and numbers.

15. When you change sheets/transparencies, stop talking.

16. Use silences/pauses to emphasize what you just said or to indicate to go on with the next subject or give your audience time to look at the visuals.

17. Before you start your presentation, make your stage your own properly by arranging your visual aids and papers. This will give you self-confidence and gives the audience the impression you are in control. It diminishes your tension!

18. Be sure you use the tight size (legible) letters on your transparencies and flip charts: check this beforehand.

19. Develop your transparencies: reveal the information you talk about. This way you keep the audience attentive.

20. Bring and show demonstration material: for example, handicrafts. Your public will remember them and by that, also your message.

21. Make the procedure of your presentation clear to your audience:

- Tell them what you are going to tell them (introduce your topics and sub-topics).
- Tell it.
- And tell them what you told them (conclusion/summary)

22. Explain the purpose of your presentation to your audience when you start.

23. Never let the visual supports control you. It should always be you who is in control.

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

Unit 1 Notes, set 1





• going beyond criteria based on indices of per capita income (statistical forms as well as those which concentrate on the study of gross income are misleading). Basic criterion is whether or not the society is a “being for itself”, i.e., its political, economic and cultural decision-making power is located within.” -Paulo Freire
• need oriented, geared to meeting both material and non material human needs; endogenous, stemming from the heart of each society; self-reliant; ecologically sound, utilizing rationally the resources of the biosphere; and based on structural transformation as an integrated whole.
• (60s) most accurate measure of development was gross national product - total money value of goods and services produced by a country in a given year. (70s) development does not only mean GNP but also on the improvement of the quality of life of the individual; person has become the yardstick.
• Should be defined to include both growth and distribution under periods of both stability and change in institutional arrangements (Havens, 1972)
• Normative concept, almost synonymous with improvement, growth, advancement, progress
• Creating the conditions for the realization of human personality (Seers, 1972)
• no universal, fixed definition - it is relative, multi-dimensional, and process oriented.


• to help people become more productive
• to improve quality of life for individuals, families, communities and countries as a whole
• As people become more productive, country is in better position to trade with others
• more trade means more goods and services to continue improving living conditions


1. Economically - accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the
dev’t of economy
2. Politically - process which prepares people for participation in political affairs, especially as citizens of a democratic country
3. Socially and Culturally - helps people lead fuller, richer lives less bound by traditions
4. Ethically - entails improvement in the quality as well as quantity of life


1. Growth Theories
a) Balanced Growth Theory- agriculture and industry sectors receive equal shares of investment
b) Lewis Dual Theory
It tries to prove that modern industrial sector will attract workers from the rural areas. But the theory is not all that perfect, it has its lapses. it may have helped the farmers to work better and easier, but the theory can't stand on its own two feet. The Lewis model explains how labor transfers in a dual economy. For Lewis, growth of industrial sector drives economic growth. The Model argues that economic growth requires structural change in the economy whereby surplus labor in agricultural sector with low or zero marginal products, migrate to the modern industrial sector where high rising marginal product is available.
c) Unbalanced Growth Theory - includes the following theories:
c.1 Deliberate unbalancing theory - involves the prioritization of two sectors (agriculture
and industry). One sector receives greater portion of investments. As this sector
develops, the effects spill out to other sectors, thus development still occurs
c.2 Capital accumulation theory involves the utilization of the unlimited supplies of labor
found in agriculture sector. The assumption here is that once the unlimited supplies
of labor are used, development occurs. However, this theory occurs only in the
capitalist (industrial sector of society)
c.3 Growth through savings and investment theory-states that every economy must
save a certain proportion of its national income if only to replace wornout capital
goods. The latter includes buildings, equipment and materials. However, to grow, a
country needs new investments representing net additions to the capital stock

2. Structural Theories
a) Dependency theory (Rostow)- views developing countries as being beset by
institutional and structural rigidities and caught up in a dependent and dominant
relationship with rich nations. The development of a dependent country is conditioned
by the powerful country with which the former is attached. First World nations
actively, but not necessarily consciously, perpetuate a state of dependency through
various policies and initiatives. This state of dependency is multifaceted, involving
economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, sports and all
aspects of human resource development.

b) Developmentalism theory-it is basically welfare-oriented. It believes that the major goal of development is human welfare. It opts for structural reforms that are equity-oriented or redistributive

Rostow’s Linear Theory is a good way of transforming an underemployed rural society to a productive urban– industrial society. The transformation or the development is on a stage-by-stage basis, no shortcuts. Though not a fast transformation, but still sustainable if properly practiced. Savings and capital formation (accumulation) are central to the process of growth. The key to development is to mobilize savings to generate the investment to set in motion self generating economic growth. Development requires substantial investment in capital equipment; to foster growth in developing nations the right conditions for such investment would have to be created. That is, in order to achieve modernization and sustain the economic development, proper and right practice especially with regards to savings and investments should be done.

4. Liberation Theory
It focuses on the poor and the oppressed. Gustavo Gutiérrez is known as the father of liberation theology. The causes of social issues such as Christian poverty, female criminality, differences in class, in social and economic power, in educational opportunity and achievement, in health and physical well-being, are the expressions and result of institutionalized inequalities in opportunity. Liberation is possible to recover the buried memories of our socialization, to share our stories and heal the hurts imposed by the conditioning, to act in the present in a humane and caring manner, to rebuild our human connections and to change our world. Gutiérrez has emphasized a commitment of solidarity with the poor, with those who suffer misery and injustice.

For Karl Marx, the basic determining factor of human history is economics. According to him, humans even from their earliest beginnings are not motivated by grand ideas but instead by material concerns, like the need to eat and survive. This is the basic premise of a materialist view of history. At the beginning, people worked together in unity and it wasn’t so bad. But eventually, humans developed agriculture and the concept of private property. These two facts created a division of labor and a separation of classes based upon power and wealth. This, in turn, created the social conflict which drive society. Societal power relationships are dialectical All of this is made worse by capitalism which only increases the disparity between the wealthy classes and the labor classes. Confrontation between them is unavoidable because those classes are driven by historical forces beyond anyone’s control. That power relationships in the modern society are based on economic relationships. The economic factors are the key to social changes. Labor has become the means of creating wealth of a society. The society is the product of its people's actions. The society reflects what kind of people it has.

6. Advantage Theory
The principle of comparative advantage is clearly counter-intuitive. Many results from the formal model are contrary to simple logic. Secondly, the theory is easy to confuse with another notion about advantageous trade, known in trade theory as the theory of absolute advantage. The logic behind absolute advantage is quite intuitive. This confusion between these two concepts leads many people to think that they understand comparative advantage when in fact, what they understand, is absolute advantage.

The model assumes only two countries producing two goods using just one factor of production. There is no capital or land or other resources needed for production. The real world, on the other hand, consists of many countries producing many goods using many factors of production. Each market is assumed to be perfectly competitive, when in reality there are many industries in which firms have market power. Labor productivity is assumed fixed, when in actuality it changes over time, perhaps based on past production levels. Full employment is assumed, when clearly workers cannot be immediately and costlessly moved to other industries. Also, all workers are assumed identical. This means that when a worker is moved from one industry to another, he or she is immediately as productive as every other worker who was previously employed there.

7. Staple Theory
Staple theory says: extensive growth for primary export leads to diversification and industrialization if the country exports the "right staple". Staple theory was developed with Canada in mind, and has been the most widely accepted explanation for Canada's economic development. Canada's economic development is thus seen as having depended on the early development of the wheat economy.


1. Welfare – spontaneous response to manifestation of poverty usually done by the rich;commonly referred to as “dole-out” by solving the problem and by filling the gap. basic needs are minimum requirements essential for decent human existence,

2. Modernization (project) – introduces all resources lacking in the community (e.g. capital, technology, infrastructure, etc.)

3. Ethical – treats a person as the end of the development process and not the means to the end it is also known as “humanism approach” that aims to provide all men the opportunity to live full human lives

4. Liberationist – empowering the poor and the marginalized to break away from unjust structure/system so that they can pursue their interests. It is also known as “conscientization” which is the state of the problems affecting oneself and the society (reflection) and working towards solving such problems collectively with others (action)

In 1973, the Development Academy of the Philippines listed the following development indeces, each is measurable and quantitative:
1. health and nutrition
2. education and skills
3. income and consumption
4. employment
5. capital and non-human resources
6. housing, utilities and environment
7. public safety and justice
8. social mobility
9. political values


What is Agricultural development?

 The process of making fuller and more rational use of agricultural resources of a country (or of an area) with special reference to improving the efficiency of agriculture and level of the agricultural population
 An intentional change of an agricultural system, which is considered desirable by people.

This could be affected by:
 Change in access to productive resources
 Change in technology
 Change in interrelationships between persons and institutions
 Change in environment such as demand for a certain commodity produced in the area and the price relations
 Active intervention by an agency from outside

Among the changes in agriculture are the evolving technologies of modern agriculture and sustainable agriculture

Features of Modern Agriculture:
1. Dynamic society that welcomes innovation and change
2. Highly productive and competitive because it uses modern production and
management technology
3. Manned by an enterprising tiller who exercises hi or her right to choose what
technology to apply, what crops to raise and when, and to whom to sell his or her
product to get the highest returns.


Framework And Dimensions

1. Ecologically and Environmentally Sound
-biodiversity (where a diverse host of creatures live with other species promotion to multiple varieties/cropping, crop rotation, integration, genetic conservation, alternative/ecological pest management, use of natural pesticides/biological control/ water management/multiple cropping/locally adapted seeds, diversifies integrated farming systems)

2. Economically Viable (hidden costs on health, soil, water, environment)

3. Socially Just and Humane
- respects human dignity
- equitable
- land to till
- access to services
- intergenerational equity
- consumers’ rights on toxic free products
- fair trading
- farmers’ control on production inputs

4. Culturally Sensitive and Appropriate
- respects traditions, values, beliefs and culture of people
- indigenous knowledge
- local knowledge
- sharing of resources/knowledge
- local communication systems (participatory extension)

5. Appropriate Technology
- location specific (crop, climate, soils, management, market, pests/diseases, etc.)
- participatory research
- affordability

6. Grounded in Holistic Science
- integrative of local/indigenous knowledge, non-reductionist
- values in farming
- respect on the integrity of creation
- spiritual dimension

7. Total Human Development
- capacity
- confidence
- analytical ability
- head, mind, heart and body

Sustainability Concerns and Issue:

• SURVIVAL - Main requirement is sufficient food and the means to achieve this is Agriculture
• ECOLOGICALLY ACCEPTABLE PRODUCTION - Where everything removed is replaced so as not to harm ecological system
• THRIVING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ORDER - With production structures and relationships which ensure a fair distribution of income, power, and opportunities, providing basis for social peace
• LONG-TERM CARRYING CAPACITY OF REGIONS – Where there is no negative impact on the environment.


Republic Act 3639 - The Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) was created to take over the tasks on plant research on crop production. Strengthened by Act No. 4007 also known as Reorganization Law of 1932

Executive Order 216 - Farm Operation division was created to plan and program research utilization and assignment of arm machinery, to introduce effective farm crop practices and to provide assistance inefficient management to the bureau’s farm

EO 116 - Placing BPI as staff bureau under the production Group

Presidential Decree 1433 - The plant Quarantine Law
- Plant Quarantine being an activity necessary in crop protection specifically mandates BPI to “prevent the introduction of exotic pests in the country and prevent further spread of plant pests already existing from infested to pest-free areas and to enforce phytosanitary measures for the export of plants, plant product and related articles.

RA 7308 - The National Seed Industry development Act
- Cognizant of the BPI roles in the development of the seen industry and it inherent function for seed and plant material certification, the Act strengthens the Seed Quality Control Section to become the National Seed Quality Control Service and given control supervision over existing field inspections and control services and seed testing laboratories and those which shall have to be established

RA 6657 - Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988
- (An act to promote a more equitable distribution and ownership of land with due regard to the rights of landowners to just compensation and to the ecological needs of the nation)

RA 7900 - High Value Crops Development Act of 1995
- (An act to promote the production, processing, marketing and distribution of high-
valued crops)

RA 8435 - Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act of 1997
-(An act prescribing urgent related measures to modernize the agriculture and fisheries sectors of the country to enhance profitability and prepare said sectors for the challenges of globalization)

RA 7394 - Consumer Act of 1992
-This act reiterates BPI functions by specifically mandating BPI to ensure safe supply of fresh agricultural crops, and improve the quality of local fresh agricultural crops and promotes its export

RA 7607 - Magna Carta for Small Farmers
- Recognizing BPI expertise and inherent functions pesticides residue analysis and pesticide formulation, seed production and certification, research, technology transfer and crop protection

MO No. 12 (03 March 2006)
Temporary Ban on the Importation of FMD-Susceptible Animals, their Products and By-Products Originating from Argentina

AO No. 5 (07 March 2006)
Delineation in the Registration of Animal Feeds and Veterinary Drugs and Products

AO 06 (18 April 2006)
Guidelines on the Production, Regulation, Promotion, Procurement and Distribution of Seeds and Planting Materials

Department Order No. 03 series of 2007 designates the Agricultural Training Institute as lead agency for the provision of e-Extension services in collaboration with the various agencies, bureaus and organizational units of the DA. This is to integrate and harmonize ICT-based extension delivery system for agriculture and fisheries.

The electronic delivery of extension service is a network of institutions that provide a more efficient alternative to a traditional extension system for agriculture, fisheries and natural resources sectors. It maximizes the use of information and communication technology to attain a modernized agriculture and fisheries sector. It focuses on creating an electronic and interactive bridge where farmers, fishers and other stakeholders meet and transact to enhance productivity, profitability and global competitiveness

Wednesday, June 17, 2009

Course syllabus

Development Communication Department
Xavier University College of Agriculture
Ag Ext 51 Course Syllabus
Sem 1, SY 09 – 10

Course Title: Agricultural Extension and Communication

Course Description:
This course is designed for all plain BS Agriculture students as well as those enrolled in the BS Food Technology and BS Agricultural Engineering programs.

Number Of Credit Units: 3 units ( 3 hours lecture per week)

Number Of Hours Per Week: 3 hours lecture per week

Entry Competency/Pre-requisite:
Since this course is offered in the third year or fourth year curricula of the various departments, it is expected that the students who would enroll in this course have had basic knowledge on basic agriculture concepts and certain agriculture technology; therefore students should have already enrolled in major subjects/program of their choice. Their basic knowledge would be used as points of entry and as specific examples as regards the application of various extension and communication methods and techniques.

General Objectives:
A. Cognitive
•Discuss the principles and practices of agricultural extension and communication and their relevance to sustainable agriculture and development
•Identify various extension and communication methods and approaches

B. Affective
•Appreciate the nuances in handling and communicating with various audiences
•Show concern to issues related to agriculture and the development of the farming

C. Psychomotor
•Demonstrate selected extension methods through classroom or field activities


Time Frame : one week
Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able
1.To contextualize discussions on agricultural extension through an analysis of
local, national and agricultural situation;
2.To present basic development theories and approaches;
3.To explain basic concepts in agriculture and agricultural development;
4.To trace the development of agriculture over the years, with focus on the
Philippines; and,
5.To identify basic agricultural laws

A Phil. Population and Agricultural Production
B Development Theories, Approaches
C Agriculture Modernization and Development
D Sustainable Agriculture and Development
E Agricultural Laws; DA EOs/Memos

Time Frame : two weeks
Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able
1.To trace the history of agricultural extension; and,
2.To explain the basic concepts of extension: definition, philosophy, goals,
objectives and types of extension.

A Historical Antecedents of Agricultural Extension
a.1 Extension in Europe and in the USA
a.2 Extension in the Philippine Setting
B Extension Defined
b.1 Philosophy
b.2 Goals and Objectives
b.3 Types of Extension

Time Frame : three weeks
Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able
1.To identify the roles and functions of the extension worker;
2.To enumerate the principles and approaches of extension;
3.To identify the various extension teaching methods, techniques and approaches;
4.To appreciate the indispensable role of communication in extension;
5.To explain the process of diffusion and adoption, teaching adults;
6.To illustrate the cycle of a development program; and,
7. To discuss and reflect on the extension experiences of the country.

A Roles and Functions of Extension Worker
B Principles
C Changes and Challenges in Extensio
D Models of Technology Transfer
E The Extension Delivery System
F Extension Teaching Methods and Techniques


Time Frame : two weeks
Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able
1. To explain the basic concepts in communication;
2. To appreciate the indispensable role of communication in extension;
3. To explain the process of diffusion and adoption; and,
4. To distinguish adult learning from conventional classroom/academic learning.

A Definition

break for:

B Stages in the Adoption-Rejection Process
C Adopter categories
D Problems and issues in adoption
E Adult Learning and Adult Teaching

Time Frame : one week
Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able
1. To illustrate the cycle of a development program; and,
2. To appreciate the value of program planning, monitoring, and evaluation

A. Definition
B. Features of Sound Planning
C. Planning Process
D. M&E in Extension

Time Frame : one week
Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able to
1. Describe the concept and process of community organization;
2. Relate the relevance of CO as a tool in agricultural extension


During the semester, students shall be exposed to various learning methodologies, such as:
1. lecture-discussion
2. e-based interaction through the blog
3. on-site lectures (possibly in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture and
4. field demonstration (Demo Day during Manresa Days)
5. library work and web-based materials
6. field/office interviews

1. Term examinations - Mid-term and final examinations (100 points each) =200 pts
2. Quizzes – announced or unannounced (total of 50 points) = 50
4. Participation in demonstration day (from preparation to dry run to final
presentation) =200
5. Assignments – 5 assignments with a total of 50 points = 50
Total =500 pts
Computation shall be based on the total points earned by a student (maximum of 500 points), no percent conversion needed, with a 60% passing score, students should be able to compute the letter grade equivalent.

Adhikarya, Romy. 1994. Strategic Extension Campaign: A Participatory-Oriented Method
ofAgricultural Extension. FAO of the UN, Rome
Battad, Teodora, et. al. 2003. Agricultural Extension. Grandwater Publications,
Makati City, Phils.
Cernea, Michael, et. al. (eds.). 1983. Agricultural Extension by Training and Visit:
The Asian Experience. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development,
World Bank,Washington
Chambers, Robert. 1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Butler and
Tanner, Ltd.,London.
Ettington, Julius. 1989. The Winning Trainer (2nd ed.) Gull Publishing House, Texas
Kwiatskowsky, Lynn. 1999. Struggling with Development: The Politics of Hunger,
Ateneo de Manila Press, Q.C.
Mosher, A.T. 1978. An Introduction to Agricultural Extension. Singapore University
Press for Agric. Dev’t Council
Ongkiko, Ila and Alexander Flor. 2003. Introduction to Development Communication.
SEAMEO SEARCA and the UP Open University, College, Los Baños, Laguna
Swanson, Burton, (eds.). 1997. Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference
Manual. FAO of the UN, Rome
Van den Ban, A.W. and H.S. Hawkins. 1996. Agricultural Extension (2nd ed). Blackwell
Science Lts., Great Britain

and web-based materials –;; others to be announced

1. The demonstration day participation is a must. No student passes the course
without having participated in such major activity.
2. Each student must have a notebook – for note-taking and for journals.
3. Students must come to class on time.
4. No assignments are accepted after the agreed deadline; it’s either on time or
5. Students are encouraged to participate in class discussion; they must use the
medium of instruction which is English. There will be sessions where the
Vernacular shall be used as an application for extension in the real work.
6. Notes may be posted on the class blog site:; students are
encouraged to visit the site and post comments as necessary



Prepared by: Approved By:
Instructor DepartmentChair
June 2009

Tuesday, June 16, 2009


Welcome note

hi guys
welcome to our world!
let's keep in touch. from time to time, i may upload some notes or send you some reminders/assignments so pls keep up. good luck to all of us. i wish everyone a happy and worthwhile time with dc 12...

keep your focus. that's one of the secrets to success


1 no meeting for us for the rest of the week. i'll see yiou all at lecture time on
tues, 4:25pm (everybody is happy!!!)

bye for now....

trel b